The Council of Europe introduced this classification in order to classify the language
proficiency levels. The classification according to the CEFR is typically used in CV’s. The
classification indicates six levels of language proficiency with regard to speaking, writing,
reading and listening in a given language.
A1 – Breakthrough or beginner
A basic ability to communicate and exchange information in a simple way.
Example: CAN ask simple questions about a menu and understand simple answers.
A2 – Waystage or elementary
An ability to deal with simple, straightforward information and begin to express oneself in familiar
Example: CAN take part in a routine conversation on simple predictable topics.
B1 – Threshold or intermediate
The ability to express oneself in a limited way in familiar situations and to deal in a general way with nonroutine information.
Example: CAN ask to open an account at a bank, provided that the procedure is straightforward.
B2 – Vantage or upper intermediate
The capacity to achieve most goals and express oneself on a range of topics.
Example: CAN show visitors around and give a detailed description of a place.
C1 – Effective operational proficiency or advanced
The ability to communicate with the emphasis on how well it is done, in terms of appropriacy,
sensitivity and the capacity to deal with unfamiliar topics.
Example: CAN deal with hostile questioning confidently. CAN get and hold onto his/her turn to speak.
C2 – Mastery or proficiency
The capacity to deal with material which is academic or cognitively demanding, and to use language
to good effect at a level of performance which may in certain respects be more advanced than that of an average native speaker.
Example: CAN scan texts for relevant information, and grasp main topic of text, reading almost as
quickly as a native speaker.